its book called “the politics of penetration” by suparna bhaskaran.
its book called “the politics of penetration” by suparna bhaskaran.
if you like anime, scrapped princess is a good one. its about a princess who was thrown away at birth because it was prophesied that when she turned 16, she would be the poison that destroys the world. and the whole world it out to kill her. but is she really the poison that will destroy the world?
i must clean my computer before the cpu dies due to exhaustion
23 June 2014
Ancient Women’s Rights
In modern society, women’s rights are almost, if not, equal to their male counter parts in many countries. However, in the ancient days, it was completely different. In some states, it was perfectly fine to have affairs with others, have a concubine or a slave to have sexual relationships with them and the wife had to tolerate it. If the wife was to commit adultery, she would be the one sacrificed to the gods, but that later changed in Rome. Women were also given away to suitors attached with a dowry and be stuck with him forever until she passes away. But in some cities, one didn’t have to stay with their spouse till death do them apart, as they were able to divorce their husbands but their husbands can also divorce them. In other societies, it was completely illegal to commit adultery. Many of the laws back in the ancient times were anti-female. As females were seen as nothing more than sex objects, baby makers, prostitutes and slaves. Women in these societies did not marry out of love, but were forced into it.
Ancient women bodies were policed by their respected cities whether or no they were citizens of that city. For Example, women in Sparta were not considered citizens. All though they were trained to wield weapons as well as being trained to fight but it was only in order to defend the house. “…female sex ought to take bodily exercise no less than the male” (L&F nos. 97 p. 84). Women also had competitions of strength and of endurance just like the men did. They were also trained to be tough women but only for child birth and if they were to die during child birth they would be honored. Women were kidnapped and had their heads shaved by men who what to have children with them in addition had to wear men clothing. Also if a strong brave man wanted to have children or just to have coitus with a gorgeous wife, he just as to receive permission from the husband. The wife has no say in who she can mate with to have children. Women also bathed their children in wine to show, if any, imperfections of the child. However, they can control the destiny of their Spartan son if he becomes a coward. In other words, the Spartan mothers can kill their coward son. Education in Sparta for girls also included pederasty as it did for the boys. However, if a man is a coward, all of his sisters are forbidden from having children. Women were also were not present at the symposiums unless it is for entertainment.
Women were able to write poetry in Greece such as the case with Sappho. Her choice of topic for the poetry was homoeroticism. Sometimes, her poetry also attacked rivals. Other times it was because her friend was given away to a man she did not know and lived far away. In addition, the Greek men were able to have wives as well as a concubine and have sexual relationships with slaves.
Prostitutes in Athens can also be bought to become a concubine for a male. Women were also seen as weak and should also stay indoors because their frail bodies cannot handle the harsh weather like the men can. If an Athenian woman becomes a prostitute, she is stripped of her citizenship and criminal charges will be brought up against her guardian. There were also sacred prostitutes that devoted themselves to be of service to god. Payment of their services, however, were not involved and worked in temples. In addition, if a woman has sexual intercourse with another woman, she is to become a widow.
Today we see that love creates marriage and arranged marriages today is frowned upon in most countries. But not back in the ancient days especially in Greece and Rome where women were arranged into marriages and they came with dowry. There was hardly any love involved in these marriages. A man and even husbands were not forbidden from having a concubine and can even go down to the brothels. Needless to say, their wives can also be a prostitute in the case of Neaera. Girls who have not become of age also can be prostitutes working in the many brothels throughout the cities which were not only owned by the state but also the temple. Many of the women in brothels were slaves or sacred prostitutes. If the wife was to commit adultery, husband or the father of the daughter can kill the daughter/wife in what we call today an honor killing. However, it was perfectly fine for a man to commit adultery in the case of Hector and many more. The wives had to put up with the adultery whether or not they liked it or even participated in it with their husbands as Andromoche did. There was plenty of double standards in Greece but adultery was illegal in Egypt.
But in Egypt, it was completely different than that of Greece although there were still restrictions placed on women but women were for free. However, restrictions were also placed on men. Women were not allowed out of their house when married. But once married women can own land as well as their own house, they also have higher status and were not allowed to have children with other men. If there was a divorce, the husband had to return the wife’s dowry and pay the original sum plus half. In addition, women had to represent themselves in court or have a relative represent them. Women were also not allowed to stay overnight at another person’s house. They also were not allowed to have no interaction with other men and cannot commit adultery.
In Rome, under the first King Romulus, women were required to wear veils or some other form of headwear, “If a woman’s head is not covered it may as well be shaven” (L&F nos. 441 p.308). Women were not allowed to drink wine. Because it was believed that women could not hold their alcohol and once they get drunk, adultery can happen. But that law was later relaxed. The family of the daughter can give her away with a dowry. The woman was also married at the age of 15. They provided little labor, and once married, her labor is transferred to another family, whereas the son’s labor stays in the family. The father also has full rights over her and the wife can arrange that the husband does not have full rights over her. If the woman stays away from her husband’s family 3 consecutive nights a year, then she is not subjected to the complete and absolute control of her husband. Women were also able to divorce their unfaithful husbands. A wife cannot be sold into slavery to play of the husband’s debt or the husband is executed. Also if the daughter in law strikes the father in law, she shall be sacrificed to the gods, but that was later prohibited in the 3rd century. Men were able to adopt children but not women. “Women were also not allowed to adopt children in Rome because they do not have the power over their own children” (L & F nos. 113 p.100). In addition, the Romans had “wet-nurses”. They are a lower class woman who was hired to breast feed children of aristocratic women. They were not allowed to be foreigners, must be proper and clean. Also they must be focus on the children only and not to have a sexual relationship with the man of the house. In addition, men were able to have multiple wives but only for procreation. But a wife cannot have multiple husbands. A man can have a concubine up until he is married, then he must let her go. “A man cannot keep a concubine at the same time that he has a wife” (L&F nos. 135 p. 115). Rome has laws forbidding the practice of adultery and if the adulterer is caught in the house, they may be killed by the husband or by the father, but if caught in the act at the fathers/husbands house.
Vestal Virgins were not male at all and were comprised of women. These women were adapted into being Vestal Virgins and handpicked young age. They would have to have a patriarch and keep their virginity. These women and girls are equivalent to nuns. They were priestess of the goddess of the Hearth (Vesta). They also had to keep the internal flams of the goddess in the center of Rome from being extinguished. They weren’t just expected to be virgins but were required to maintain their virginity while they were a Vestal Virgin. If they did not not keep it, they were often treated harshly. “The king set the term of service for the holy Virgins at thirty years…” (L&F nos. 408 p.289). This is the amount of time the king set in order to train the girls in different decades as well as teach the new generation. Their first decade was to learn the duties of a Vestal Virgin. Their second decade was have to put into practice of what they learned ten years prior, and the last decade was to pass down what they learned to the new generation of Vestal Virgins. Once they were finished with their terms of service, they were free to marry. But these holy workers were not safe from beatings and executions. Even minor offensives are punished by beatings. If any Vestal Virgin is seduced they are buried alive. (L&F nos. 408 p.289).
Women had a tough time back in the ancient times. As men in some societies were not punished for adultery, in others they can be killed on site. But, if a woman is caught committing adultery they can be killed. Women usually had a higher authority watching their every move, such as their husbands and fathers, but in one society the only way to get rid of the authority figure is to marry and have 3 children. Women were treated as second class citizens if they were citizens, in other, they were not even seen as citizens. Women were prostitutes, sex slaves, a concubine, a home maker, and sex objects for procreation and didn’t even have authority over their own children in some societies. Sure in some societies, they had some freedom, but that freedom came with heavy restrictions while the men had less restricted, were not stuck in the house all day and were able to rule over their arranged wives.